|Year : 2020 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 69-77
The impact of family support program on depression, anxiety, stress, and satisfaction in the family members of open-heart surgery patients
, Yadollah Janati2, Nouraddin Mousavinasab3, Mahsa Kamali4, Vida Shafipour4
1 Student Research Committee, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran
2 Department of Psychiatry, Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Addiction Institute, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran
3 Department of Biostatistics, School of Health, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran
4 Department of Medical-Surgical Nursing, Nasibeh Nursing and Midwifery Faculty, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran
|Date of Submission||12-May-2019|
|Date of Acceptance||29-Jul-2019|
|Date of Web Publication||06-Apr-2020|
Dr. Vida Shafipour
Nasibeh Nursing and Midwifery Faculty, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Context: Because family members of cardiac surgery patients play a significant role in the patient's recovery, it is important to address their needs during hospitalization and after discharge.
Aims: We aimed to investigate the impact of family support program on depression, anxiety, stress, and satisfaction in the open-heart surgery patients' family members.
Setting and Design: This is a randomized clinical trial with two intervention and control groups. The study was conducted at the Teaching Hospital Heart Center in Sari, Iran.
Materials and Methods: Ninety family members participated in this randomized controlled study, who were divided into an intervention group receiving support program from a research team and a control group receiving routine care.
Statistical Analysis: In this study, Shapiro–Wilk, Mann–Whitney U, Friedman, and Chi-square test were used.
Results: The family members in both groups had significantly lower depression, stress, and anxiety at 24 h before and 14 days after discharge. The total score of depression, stress, and anxiety statistically significantly improved in the intervention group compared to the control group. However, their satisfaction of nursing care increased (P < 0.001).
Conclusions: This study () revealed that significant effects with regard to reduced feelings of depression, stress, and anxiety also improved the family members' satisfaction in the intervention group.
Keywords: Anxiety, Depression, Patient family, Satisfaction, Stress
|How to cite this article:|
Shoushi F, Janati Y, Mousavinasab N, Kamali M, Shafipour V. The impact of family support program on depression, anxiety, stress, and satisfaction in the family members of open-heart surgery patients. J Nurs Midwifery Sci 2020;7:69-77
|How to cite this URL:|
Shoushi F, Janati Y, Mousavinasab N, Kamali M, Shafipour V. The impact of family support program on depression, anxiety, stress, and satisfaction in the family members of open-heart surgery patients. J Nurs Midwifery Sci [serial online] 2020 [cited 2023 Nov 29];7:69-77. Available from: https://www.jnmsjournal.org/text.asp?2020/7/2/69/281989
| Introduction|| |
It is obvious that open-heart surgery and hospitalization in the intensive care unit (ICU) lead to severe stress in patients and in their family members. The intensity of stress is so high that this period is often referred to as a period of crisis.,, Fear of death, doubts about prognosis and treatment, emotional conflicts, concern about economic conditions, and changes in the roles and disruption of daily activities could lead to shock, anger, frustration, anxiety, and depression in family members, particularly in the first 72 h of hospitalization.,, The high stress of heart surgery is a threatening factor for the health condition of the patients, with negative impacts on relationships between family members., Anxiety limits the efficiency of family members in helping the patient that may exacerbate patients' concerns. Lack of support and increased levels of anxiety significantly affect the performance of the family and consequently the success of heart surgery.
Askari et al. showed that 68%, 57.3%, and 46.7% of the patients' (hospitalized in ICU) family members experienced anxiety, depression, and stress, respectively.
Studies indicate that the main causes of stress and anxiety in the patients' family members are the lack of support and information required to recover at home.,,, In-time identification and responding to the needs of the family members reduce the negative impact of the stress on them and the treatment team and direct their attention to the patient care.,
On the other hand, in recent years, research has inclined toward community-based care, and the attempts to improve the health-care quality and satisfaction of the patients and their families have increased.,, Studies indicate that the level of families' satisfaction is an appropriate measure to evaluate the quality of care and effectiveness of information provided to the families of the patients hospitalized in ICUs. Therefore, we have suggested some interventions to reduce the stress of the family members and improve their satisfaction.,,
It seems that supportive interventions, as compared to educational interventions, have been more evaluated in the reduction of depression and anxiety in family members., Supportive interventions of the patients' family members could be as follows: family education about the disease process, treatment, and rehabilitation, more cope of family members with patient's postoperative condition; skills in the control of concerns; providing support; comfort; and appointment of a brief meeting with the patients.,,,
In the cultural, social, and religious context, the role of family members in the patients' care is good in Iran, and there is a close communication between the patients and their family members. Following hospitalization of the patient, the family members try to care for the patient.
The health systems of Iran's family support programs are not well explained, and little attention is given to the positive role of the family as an important factor in the development of therapeutic objectives. Whereas, due to increases workload in clinical setting, family member support program were ignored by Iranian nurses.,
Because post open-heart surgery hospitalization period is short, most of the recovery processes happen at home, without patients enjoying constant nursing and medical care. Therefore, it is necessary that the needs of patients and their families should be assessed during their hospital stay, which require training, and care should be provided during hospitalization and recovery period according to their needs, to reduce postoperative complications. This study was conducted to investigate the impact of family support program on depression, anxiety, stress, and satisfaction of open-heart surgery patients' family members.
| Materials and Methods|| |
This study aimed to examine the impact of family support program on depression, anxiety, stress, and satisfaction on the family members of open-heart surgery patients during the 1 day before surgery until 14 days after discharge.
After approval of the Ethics Committee of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences (No. 95-2118), registration at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT: 2016051624342N2), and receiving a letter of introduction, the list of patients supposed to undergo coronary artery bypass graft surgery and heart valve replacement was received from the heart surgery nursing ward, and the patients were visited before surgery. The purpose of the study was explained to the family members of the patients. Confidentiality of information, freedom of exclusion, and receive routine care in spite of leaving the study were emphasized, and a written informed consent was obtained from the participants.
This is a randomized clinical trial with two intervention and control groups. The study was conducted at the teaching hospital heart center in Sari, Iran.
Of 108 family members of the patients hospitalized for coronary artery bypass surgery and heart valve replacement in these wards, only 90 family members were selected.
We used a convenient sampling method. Eligible individuals were randomly assigned to an intervention (n = 45) and a control (n = 45) groups [Figure 1]. A computer-generated random list was used to allocate the study participants into control and intervention groups.
|Figure 1: The flow diagram of the participants through each stage of the study|
Click here to view
In order to prevent the exchange of information between the two groups, the groups were not studied in the same week. Participants of the two groups allocated in 1, 2, 3.4 in intervention group and 2, 5, 6, 8 in control group.
Age ≥18 years; education status; those who play a major role in patient care; those who are not a recipient of open-heart surgery emergency; those who were not being affected by major psychiatric disorders; and those with no addiction to drugs and alcohol or psychoactive drugs.
Family members who were absence from 1 to 2 training sessions; those who had bleeding of the surgical site and undergone re-operation; those not removing endotracheal tube after 24 h; and death of patient during the study.
Data were collected for 4 months from April to July 2016. The study questionnaires comprised information on demographic data; Depression, Anxiety, and Stress scale (DASS-21); and the Persian version of the Family Satisfaction in the Intensive Care Unit (FS-ICU). Demographics and DASS-21 data were collected at 1 day before surgery in the two groups. FS-ICU questionnaires were completed at 24 h before discharge, and DASS-21 was completed at 14 days after discharge.
Demographic data of the family members comprised seven items (gender, age, relationship with patient, marital status, education, occupation, and living place). In order to measure depression, anxiety, and stress, DASS-21 was used. This questionnaire includes 21 items related to depression (seven items), anxiety (seven items), and stress (seven items), with a 4-point Likert scale ranging from “at all” to “very much.” The following scores have been developed for defining normal, mild, moderate, severe, and very severe scores for each component of DASS scale: for depression: 0–4: normal; 5–6: mild; 7–10: moderate; 11–13: severe; and over 14: very severe; for anxiety: 0–3: normal; 4–5: mild; 6–7: moderate; 8–9: severe; and over 10: very severe; for stress: 0–7: normal; 8–9: mild; 10–12: moderate; 13–16: severe; and over 17: very severe. Crawford and Henry obtained the reliability of DASS-21 through calculating Cronbach's alpha coefficient. On this basis, the reliability of depression was found to be 0.95, for anxiety to be 0.90, for stress to be 0.93, and for total scores to be 0.97. A study conducted in Iran indicated Cronbach's alpha coefficients of 0.97, 0.71, 0.74, and 0.91 for depression, anxiety, stress, and total reliability, respectively.
To measure perceived satisfaction, the FS-ICU, developed by Dolatyari et al., was used. The Persian version of the FS-ICU with three subscales, including satisfaction with the performance of medical staff (12 items), convenience (12 items), and decision-making (6 items), was used. The scoring method in this measure, which is based on the Canadian Coding Standard (FS-ICU-34) developed by Heyland et al., is as follows: in the first and second subscales of the 5-point Likert scale with scoring system of 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100, the option weak is assigned for point 0 and the option excellent is assigned for point 100 (items 1–24); In the third subscale, the items 25, 29, and 30 were answered by 5 descriptive choices in which the score 0 was allocated to choices 1 and 5, score 50 to choices 2 and 4, and score 100 to choice 3. In this subscale, the answer for item 27 has three options and scoring is as follows: options 1 and 3 receive score zero and option 2 receives score 100. The scoring system for item 28 of the third subscale has three options, where option 1 is assigned for score zero and options 2 and 3 are assigned for score 100. The reliability and validity (face, content, and construct) of this questionnaire were approved in Iran. The total reliability of the measure in the present study using Cronbach's alpha was obtained at 0.95, and the reliability of satisfaction with the performance of medical staff, convenience, and decision-making subscales was obtained at 0.93, 0.92, and 0.84, respectively. In the present study, the total reliability of the measure was obtained at 0.82%.
The control group did not receive any intervention and routine hospital care. Using DASS-21, the anxiety, depression, and stress were measured for both groups 24 h before and 14 h after discharge. In addition, using the Persian version of the FS-ICU questionnaire, satisfaction of the participants was measured 24 h before discharge.
Family members in the control group received care as usual during the intervention period. In general, the intervention of care included low-frequent sessions with nurse's verbal education to patient at admission time about preparation for surgery and a leaflet about after-discharge care and the patient following treatment.
In addition to routine care, the family members in the intervention group received psycho-education support from 1 day before surgery to 14 days after discharge through face-to-face sessions and follow-up calls. An individual training session was held the day before surgery where a booklet including preoperative care (familiarizing of the family members with the equipment and accessories of ICU, such as ventilator, and providing some information about the process and the approximate time of surgery, and hospital stay period) was handed over to the patients' family members. From the 1st day after the surgery to 3 days after the surgery, three face-to-face training sessions, each lasting about 30–45 min, were held for the patients according to their needs, and a booklet including some information was provided to make them acquainted with medicine and nutritional regimen and the procedures conducted after the surgery. Coinciding with the face-to-face sessions, some approaches, such as giving family members an opportunity to discuss their concerns and fears, assuring them that adequate care will be provided at the hospital, and advising them to be hopeful and have trust in God, were emphasized. From day 4 after surgery until the 14th day after discharge, daily telephone calls were made with the family members of the patients, and their questions about patient care were answered. In addition, the telephone number of the researcher was given to the patients' family members to contact in case necessary. Scientific resources and books were used in designing the educational content of the intervention.,,, Validity of the content was also verified by three cardiac surgery specialists, three cardiologists, two anesthesiologists, and four nurses working in the ICU of open-heart surgery.
First, data homogenization in terms of demographic characteristics (age, gender, relationship with patient, marital status, occupation, education level, distance from health center, and type of surgery) was performed. Normality of the data was examined through Shapiro–Wilk test. To describe the data, mean and standard deviation were used. Comparison between the groups in the DASS-21 and FS-ICU questionnaires was conducted by Mann–Whitney U-test, and in order to compare the trend of changes in one group, Friedman test was used. For dichotomous variables, Chi-square test was used. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant level for all comparisons. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS 16 (version 16-SPSS 16.0 Studentv Version for Windows Inc. SPSS©2009).
| Results|| |
In this study, ninety family members in intervention and control groups were surveyed. Most of the study participants in both groups were female, were married, and were homemakers. The mean age of the family members in the intervention and control groups was 42.82 ± 12.96 and 39.80 ± 11.65 years, respectively. There was a statistically insignificant difference in demographic data (t = 63.1, P = 0.283) [Table 1]. The mean age of the patients in the control and intervention groups was 61.76 ± 9.48 and 61.89 ± 11.52 years, respectively. In addition, 65.6% and 34.4% of the participants were male and female, respectively.
|Table 1: Demographic characteristics of the family members in the two groups (n=90)|
Click here to view
Normality was evaluated using Shapiro–Wilk test, and the results showed that it does not follow a normal distribution (P > 0.05). Mann–Whitney U-test showed a statistically insignificant difference between depression (P = 0.671), anxiety (P = 0.987), stress (P = 0.774), and satisfaction. Therefore, the participants were similar in terms of these factors before the intervention. The prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress was very severe in the two groups. The mean scores of depression, anxiety, and stress in the intervention and control groups were compared 24 h before discharge and 14 days after discharge, using Mann–Whitney U-test. The data showed a decrease in the mean scores of depression, anxiety, and stress in both groups. The level of depression in the intervention group decreased from very severe to normal in 24 h before and 14 days after discharge. The level of anxiety and stress in the intervention group decreased from very severe to moderate and normal in 24 h and 14 days after discharge, respectively. However, in the control group, the level of depression, anxiety, and stress decreased from very severe before the intervention to moderate 24 h before discharge[Figure2]. This reduction was statistically significant in the intervention group (P < 0.001) [Table 2].
|Table 2: Comparing the mean standard deviation of depression, anxiety, and stress of family members during the study|
Click here to view
Friedman test revealed that the average scores of depression and stress in all the three stages, i.e., before surgery, 24 h before discharge, and 14 days after discharge, significantly decreased in both groups (P < 0.001), but the intervention group showed a greater decrease compared with the control group in terms of the mean scores of anxiety, depression, and stress.
Mann–Whitney U-test also showed a statistically significant difference regarding satisfaction between the two groups 24 h before discharge (P < 0.001). Therefore, satisfaction was noticed more in the intervention group (82.02 ± 6.44) (P < 0.001).
[Table 3] shows a statistically significant difference between the two groups regarding satisfaction with medical staff performance and comfort subscales (P < 0.001); moreover, there was a statistically insignificant difference in terms of decision-making between the two groups (P = 0.282).
| Discussion|| |
This study aimed to examine the impact of family support program on depression, anxiety, stress, and satisfaction on the family members of open-heart surgery patients during the 1 day before surgery until 14 days after discharge. Before the family support program was applied in the present research, the two groups were assessed in terms of age; gender; marital status; educational level; family caregiver's relationship to patient; distance to health center; job; kind of surgery; and depression, anxiety, and stress scores before intervention, while statistical test revealed no significance difference between the control and intervention groups. However, there was a decrease in both groups 24 h before and 14 days after discharge. Therefore, this decrease was statistically significant in the intervention group (P < 0.001). Satisfaction of nursing care 24 h before discharge indicated a greater increase in the intervention group (P < 0.001). All surgeries threaten the physical and mental health of the patients' family members, but in heart surgeries, where the life of the patient is threatened, the problem is more evident,, which was also observed in this study.
Chien et al. found that information provided by the nurses on the patient's condition, prognosis, paying attention to their family members' feelings, and training them on how to care for their patients could reduce their anxiety. Implementing a nursing care plan including information and emotional support during surgery could reduce depression, anxiety, and stress among the family members. However, another study showed that implementing the support program until the day of discharge from the ICU could not reduce the family members' anxiety. However, in the present study, the systematic program implied that family support could reduce these indicators. This difference can be due to that, in spite of our study that systematic program implied family support could reduce these indicators, in Imanipour et al.'s study information support were used and according to the provision of information in the control group by the hospital the level of anxiety did not decrease compared with the intervention group. However, in the present study, the coherent family support program was used. Bailey et al. found that though there is an insignificant relationship between information support and anxiety of the families, when their patients are hospitalized in the ICU, satisfaction of the family members increased due to information support. Šgren et al. reported that psychoeducational support has no impact on the depressive symptoms in patients and their partners. In the present study, a positive relationship was found between family support and depression, anxiety, and stress. The difference between the present research and Mehdipour-Rabori et al. study could have been emerged due to the fact that the present study provided an opportunity for families to talk about their concerns and encouraged them to hope and trust in God and other studies indicated that trust in God heals psychological symptoms in family members, thus this improvement seen in the present study.,
Some studies show that depression and anxiety are not associated with satisfaction., Rusinova et al. found a relationship between the symptoms of depression and anxiety that are associated with the satisfaction of family members of patients in the ICU and reported that reduction in depression and anxiety led to increase in their satisfaction with nursing care. This difference can be due to that the present study used a 14-day follow-up program after surgery because family members are responsible for caring of the patients, and this follow-up program could increase satisfaction.
In this study, we found that supporting family members of the patients reduces their depression, anxiety, and stress and increases their satisfaction. Carlson et al. reported a negative relationship between emotional distresses in the family members of patients hospitalized in the ICU and their satisfaction, so that an improved care and especially an improved communication between staff and patients' family members, as well as provision of the required information, could reduce their emotional distress and increase their satisfaction.
In the present study, determining satisfaction level in patient's family members showed that implementing a supportive program increases their satisfaction with medical staff performance and comfort subscales, but has no impact on the decision-making subscale. Lack of partial score less than the decision-making scale score could indicate low attention to the importance of health caregivers.,, In this study, importance to the needs of family members, such as on-time obtaining data, confidence, and convenience, was considered. This result may be due to that caring for patients undergoing cardiac surgery is based on the patient's need and protocol. The independence and decision-making of the families are less and they could not change patient's care plan.
While another study investigating the relationship between provided information and family members' satisfaction showed a negative relationship. The differences in the satisfaction levels of patient's family members in several studies attributed to the cultural and social differences of the participants.
Family-centered care in Iran had been less intentioned due to lack of benefit education and professional caregivers emphasized on patient's health, while forgot that family members are under tension same as the patients. If the family members play role in supporting the patients physically and mentally, they improve soon and better.
The findings of this study showed that follow-up of patients' family members and communication with them and presence of a professional nurse after patient discharge could reduce depression, anxiety, and stress until 14 days after discharge. Šgren et al. reported that communication between family members and a professional person after discharge improves their health condition and reduces their concerns, which confirms with the findings of this study.
Fumis and Deheinzelin found that women are more susceptible to anxiety and depression, whereas in the present study, there was a statistically insignificant relationship between the levels of anxiety, depression, and stress in men and women. On the other hands, in Fumis and Deheinzelin 's study participants were cancerous patient but in present study they were dialysis patients and people face with this challenge in difference way.
Limitations of this study that may influence the results are as follows: its implementation at a training center, which limits generalization of the results to all hospitals. The individual differences and psychological status of the participants when responding to the questionnaires could affect their answers, which was out of the researcher's control.
| Conclusions|| |
The findings of the study indicate that the level of depression, anxiety, and stress in the intervention group 24 h before and 14 days after discharge significantly reduced, compared with the day before surgery. Furthermore, satisfaction of the family members on health-care quality (24 h before discharge) increased. Family members of the patients undergoing open-heart surgery experienced much depression, anxiety, and stress. Therefore, paying attention and caring about family members of these patients is a necessity. Based on this study, nurses can effectively reduce these problems through implementing programs supporting patient's family members. Because the appropriate mental condition of the family members has a significant impact on the quality of the health care provided, implementing supportive programs to the family members of the patients is suggested.
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
VSH designed the study, provided the important suggestions for the improvement of the first draft, revised the paper, and supervised the study process. FSH collected the data and wrote the paper. YJ supervised the study intervention. NMS performed the statistical analysis and contributed to the study design. MK collaborated on the article process. All the authors read and approved the manuscript and each author believes that the manuscript represents honest work.
Financial support and sponsorship
This study was financially supported by Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.
The authors would like to express their gratitude to all the participating patients and also to those who helped to design and carry out this study. The current article is based on a thesis sponsored by Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences (coded 95-2118).
| References|| |
Casarini KA, Gorayeb R, Basile Filho A. Coping by relatives of critical care patients. Heart Lung 2009;38:217-27.
Fumis RR, Deheinzelin D. Family members of critically ill cancer patients: Assessing the symptoms of anxiety and depression. Intensive Care Med 2009;35:899-902.
McAdam JL, Dracup KA, White DB, Fontaine DK, Puntillo KA. Symptom experiences of family members of intensive care unit patients at high risk for dying. Crit Care Med 2010;38:1078-85.
Bijttebier P, Vanoost S, Delva D, Ferdinande P, Frans E. Needs of relatives of critical care patients: Perceptions of relatives, physicians and nurses. Intensive Care Med 2001;27:160-5.
Azoulay E, Pochard F, Kentish-Barnes N, Chevret S, Aboab J, Adrie C, et al.
Risk of post-traumatic stress symptoms in family members of intensive care unit patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2005;171:987-94.
El-Masri MM, Fox-Wasylyshyn SM. Nurses' roles with families: Perceptions of ICU nurses. Intensive Crit Care Nurs 2007;23:43-50.
Cypress BS. The lived ICU experience of nurses, patients and family members: A phenomenological study with Merleau-Pontian perspective. Intensive Crit Care Nurs 2011;27:273-80.
Doering LV, Moser DK, Lemankiewicz W, Luper C, Khan S. Depression, healing, and recovery from coronary artery bypass surgery. Am J Crit Care 2005;14:316-24.
Dunbar SB, Dougherty CM, Sears SF, Carroll DL, Goldstein NE, Mark DB, et al.
Educational and psychological interventions to improve outcomes for recipients of implantable cardioverter defibrillators and their families: A scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation 2012;126:2146-72.
Knoll SM, Johnson JL. Uncertainty and expectations: Taking care of a cardiac surgery patient at home. J Cardiovasc Nurs 2000;14:64-75.
Askari H, Forozi M, Navidian A, Haghdost A. Psychological reactions of family members of patients in critical care units in Zahedan. J Res Health 2013;3:317-24.
Chien WT, Chiu YL, Lam LW, Ip WY. Effects of a needs-based education programme for family carers with a relative in an intensive care unit: A quasi-experimental study. Int J Nurs Stud 2006;43:39-50.
Bailey JJ, Sabbagh M, Loiselle CG, Boileau J, McVey L. Supporting families in the ICU: A descriptive correlational study of informational support, anxiety, and satisfaction with care. Intensive Crit Care Nurs 2010;26:114-22.
Agren S, Frisman GH, Berg S, Svedjeholm R, Strömberg A. Addressing spouses' unique needs after cardiac surgery when recovery is complicated by heart failure. Heart Lung 2009;38:284-91.
Boyd KJ, Worth A, Kendall M, Pratt R, Hockley J, Denvir M, et al.
Making sure services deliver for people with advanced heart failure: A longitudinal qualitative study of patients, family carers, and health professionals. Palliat Med 2009;23:767-76.
Maruiti MR, Galdeano LE, Farah OG. Anxiety and depressions in relatives of patients admitted in intensive care units. Acta Paulista Enfermagem 2008;21:636-42.
Davidson JE. Family-centered care: Meeting the needs of patients' families and helping families adapt to critical illness. Crit Care Nurse 2009;29:28-34.
Yang S. A mixed methods study on the needs of Korean families in the intensive care unit. Aust J Adv Nurs 2008;25:79.
Meadows C, Bastin A, Kaul S, Finney S. Family satisfaction on the intensive care unit. Crit Care 2010;14:1-11.
Stricker KH, Kimberger O, Schmidlin K, Zwahlen M, Mohr U, Rothen HU. Family satisfaction in the intensive care unit: What makes the difference? Intensive Care Med 2009;35:2051-9.
Abvali A, Peyrovi H, Moradi-Moghaddam O, Gohari M. Effect of support program on satisfaction of family members of ICU patients. JCCNC 2015;1:29-36.
Lynche Y, Mealer M, Moss M, Sottile P. Resiliency is associated with less symptoms of depression, anxiety, and improved satisfaction in family members of intensive care unit patients. Age 2014;57:16.
Schwarzkopf D, Behrend S, Skupin H, Westermann I, Riedemann NC, Pfeifer R, et al.
Family satisfaction in the intensive care unit: A quantitative and qualitative analysis. Intensive Care Med 2013;39:1071-9.
Martire LM, Lustig AP, Schulz R, Miller GE, Helgeson VS. Is it beneficial to involve a family member? A meta-analysis of psychosocial interventions for chronic illness. Health Psychol 2004;23:599-611.
Hartmann M, Bäzner E, Wild B, Eisler I, Herzog W. Effects of interventions involving the family in the treatment of adult patients with chronic physical diseases: A meta-analysis. Psychother Psychosom 2010;79:136-48.
Campbell TL. The effectiveness of family interventions for physical disorders. J Marital Fam Ther 2003;29:263-81.
Šgren S, Berg S, Svedjeholm R, Strömberg A. Psychoeducational support to post cardiac surgery heart failure patients and their partners – A randomised pilot study. Intensive Crit Care Nurs 2015;31:10-8.
Yousefi H, Karami A, Moeini M, Ganji H. Effectiveness of nursing interventions based on family needs on family satisfaction in the neurosurgery intensive care unit. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res 2012;17:296-300.
Micheli AJ, Curran-Campbell S, Connor L. The evolution of a surgical liaison program in a children's hospital. AORN J 2010;92:158-68.
Asghar Poor R, Hemmati Maslakpak M, Alinejad V. The effect of needs – Based training on the level of the anxiety of families of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. J Nurs Midwifery Urmia Univ Med Sci 2016;14:665-73.
Zand S, Asgari P, Bahramnezhad F, Rafiei F. The effect of two educational methods (family- centered and patient-centered) multimedia software on dysrhythmia of patients after acute myocardial infarction. J Health 2016;7:7-17.
Laslett LJ, Alagona P
Jr., Clark BA 3rd
, Drozda JP Jr., Saldivar F, Wilson SR, et al.
The worldwide environment of cardiovascular disease: Prevalence, diagnosis, therapy, and policy issues: A report from the American College of Cardiology. J Am Coll Cardiol 2012;60:S1-49.
Mohammadpor A, Mehdipour Y, Karimi A, Rahdari A. A comparative study of the Iran ministry of health patient and family education standards with joint commission on accreditation of healthcare organizations. Health Inf Manage 2010;6:35-53.
O'Halloran VE. Defining educational settings to improve client health teaching. Medsurg Nurs 1997;6:130-6, 152.
Crawford JR, Henry JD. The depression anxiety stress scales (DASS): Normative data and latent structure in a large non-clinical sample. Br J Clin Psychol 2003;42:111-31.
Ghafari S, Ahmadi F, Nabavi M, Memarian R. Effects of Applying Progressive Muscle Relaxation Technique on Depression, Anxiety and Stress of Multiple Sclerosis Patients in Iran National MS Society; 2008.
Heyland DK, Rocker GM, Dodek PM, Kutsogiannis DJ, Konopad E, Cook DJ, et al.
Family satisfaction with care in the intensive care unit: Results of a multiple center study. Crit Care Med 2002;30:1413-8.
Dolatyari A, Sharififar S, Zareian A, Tadrisi D. Family satisfaction with care in the intensive care unit: Results of a multiple center study in selected military hospitals. AJA Univ Med Sci 2015;8:59-66.
Life after Heart Valve Surgery Heart Valve Disease; 2016. Available from: http://www.medtronic.com/
. [Last accessed on 2016 May 16].
The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine Cardiothoracic Surgery Residency Program; 2015. Available from: http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/
. [Last accessed on 2015 Oct 10].
Hinkle JL, Cheever KH. Brunner & Suddarth's Textbook of Medical-Surgical Nursing. 13th
ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins: Lisa McAllister; London;2013.
Boudrez H, De Backer G. Psychological status and the role of coping style after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Results of a prospective study. Qual Life Res 2001;10:37-47.
Merkouris A, Apostolakis E, Pistolas D, Papagiannaki V, Diakomopoulou E, Patiraki E. Quality of life after coronary artery bypass graft surgery in the elderly. Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs 2009;8:74-81.
Zakerimoghadam M, Ghiasvandian S, Salahshoor P. The effect of supportive nursing program on depression, anxiety and stress of family members of patients during coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Iran J Cardiovasc Nurs 2014;3:50-8.
Imanipour M, Heidari Z, Seyedfatemi N, Haghani H. Effectiveness of informational support on anxiety among family carers of patients undergone open heart surgery. J Hayat 2012;18:33-43.
Rosmarin DH, Pargament KI, Mahoney A. The role of religiousness in anxiety, depression, and happiness in a Jewish community sample: A preliminary investigation. Ment Health Relig Cult 2009;12:97-113.
Mehdipour-Rabori R, Nematollahi M. The effect of recommended Azkar on anxiety, stress, and depression in families of patients undergoing open heart surgery. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res 2014;19:238-41.
Azoulay E, Pochard F, Chevret S, Jourdain M, Bornstain C, Wernet A, et al.
Impact of a family information leaflet on effectiveness of information provided to family members of intensive care unit patients: A multicenter, prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2002;165:438-42.
Fumis RR, Ranzani OT, Faria PP, Schettino G. Anxiety, depression, and satisfaction in close relatives of patients in an open visiting policy intensive care unit in Brazil. J Crit Care 2015;30:440.e1-6.
Rusinova K, Kukal J, Simek J, Cerny V; DEPRESS study working group. Limited family members/staff communication in intensive care units in the Czech and Slovak republics considerably increases anxiety in patients' relatives – The DEPRESS study. BMC Psychiatry 2014;14:21.
Carlson EB, Spain DA, Muhtadie L, McDade-Montez L, Macia KS. Care and caring in the intensive care unit: Family members' distress and perceptions about staff skills, communication, and emotional support. J Crit Care 2015;30:557-61.
Wall RJ, Engelberg RA, Downey L, Heyland DK, Curtis JR. Refinement, scoring, and validation of the family satisfaction in the intensive care unit (FS-ICU) survey. Crit Care Med 2007;35:271-9.
Dolatyari A, Sharififar S, Zareiyan A, Tadrisi D. Family satisfaction with care in the intensive care unit: Results of a multiple center study in selected military hospitals. Military Caring Sci 2014;1:18-26.
Leske JS. Needs of adult family members after critical illness: Prescriptions for interventions. Crit Care Nurs Clin North Am 1992;4:587-96.
Gooding JS, Cooper LG, Blaine AI, Franck LS, Howse JL, Berns SD. Family support and family-centered care in the neonatal intensive care unit: Origins, advances, impact. Semin Perinatol 2011;35:20-8.
[Figure 1], [Figure 2]
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]
|This article has been cited by|
||Self-Care Behaviors among Patients after Cardiac Surgery in Saudi Arabia: Application of Orem’s Theory of Self-Care
| ||Mohannad Jamil Alkuwaisi, Salman Hamdan Alsargri, Mohammed Kamel Aldalaykeh, Mokhtar Abdu Hamid, Fatimah Hamdan Alsargri, Nabeel Al-Yateem |
| ||Nursing Forum. 2023; 2023: 1 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Factors Affecting Death Anxiety in Patients Undergoing Open Heart Surgery: A Cross-Sectional Study
| ||Necibe Dagcan Sahin, Gülsah Gürol Arslan, Dilara Özbek |
| ||OMEGA - Journal of Death and Dying. 2023; |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||The Impact of Randomized Family-Centered Interventions on Family-Centered Outcomes in the Adult Intensive Care Unit: A Systematic Review
| ||Gary Wang, Ryan Antel, Michael Goldfarb |
| ||Journal of Intensive Care Medicine. 2023; : 0885066623 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||A Cross-Sectional Comparative Study of Nurses’ and Family Members’ Perceptions on Priority and Satisfaction in Meeting the Needs of Family Members at the Emergency Department
| ||Reza Abbaszadeh, Faranak Jabbarzadeh Tabrizi, Alehe Seyedrasooli, Akram Ghahramanian, Farzaneh Bagheriyeh, Geoffrey Dickens |
| ||Journal of Emergency Nursing. 2023; |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||“What Do You Expect?”: A Qualitative Content Analysis Study to Explain the Expectations of the Families of Patients Undergoing Surgery
| ||Fazlollah Ahmadi, Anoshirvan Kazemnejad, Maryam Azizi |
| ||Medical-Surgical Nursing Journal. 2023; 11(4) |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||The effect of a family-based participatory care program on anxiety in patients with acute coronary syndrome in coronary care units: A randomised controlled clinical trial
| ||Mohsen Soleimani, Zarrin Tansaz, Narges Kheirollahi, Hassan Babamohamadi |
| ||Australian Critical Care. 2022; |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Educational approaches for patients with heart surgery: a systematic review of main features and effects
| ||Leila Shahmoradi, Nafiseh Rezaei, Sorayya Rezayi, Mitra Zolfaghari, Babak Manafi |
| ||BMC Cardiovascular Disorders. 2022; 22(1) |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Nursing intervention to meet the family members’ needs during the surgery waiting time
| ||Alejandra Fuentes-Ramirez, Olga Lucia Laverde-Contreras |
| ||Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem. 2021; 29 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||The Effect of a Multifaceted Family Participation Program in an Adult Cardiovascular Surgery ICU*
| ||Hye Jin Yoo,JaeLan Shim |
| ||Critical Care Medicine. 2021; 49(1): 38 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|