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 Table of Contents  
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 134-135

Tinnitus, a well-known medical issue in medieval Persia

1 Department of Traditional Persian Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran
2 Gastrointestinal Cancer Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran

Date of Submission13-Jun-2020
Date of Acceptance01-Jul-2020
Date of Web Publication04-May-2021

Correspondence Address:
Seyde Sedighe Yousefi
Department of Traditional Persian Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/JNMS.JNMS_77_20

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How to cite this article:
Aminian A, Zaboli E, Yousefi SS. Tinnitus, a well-known medical issue in medieval Persia. J Nurs Midwifery Sci 2021;8:134-5

How to cite this URL:
Aminian A, Zaboli E, Yousefi SS. Tinnitus, a well-known medical issue in medieval Persia. J Nurs Midwifery Sci [serial online] 2021 [cited 2023 Jun 4];8:134-5. Available from: https://www.jnmsjournal.org/text.asp?2021/8/2/134/315422

Despite scientific advances, tinnitus still remains as a clinical ambiguity in Modern medicine.[1] It has a relatively high prevalence rate worldwide, 10%–15% in adults, especially in elders and almost gender independently. Tinnitus, derived from the Latin verb “Tinniere,” means “ringing,” which reflects a conscious sense of hearing that may not have an external source or stimulus.[1] Tinnitus can be subjective when the experience is of the individual alone, or less commonly objective when an observer can also hear the sound. The sensation is generally of an elementary nature, but in some cases, more complex sounds are perceived.[1] The precise mechanism of tinnitus is still unclear; therefore, the diagnosis is almost based on the patient's accurate medical history and self-reported questionnaires.[2] Furthermore, existing therapeutic methods mostly address symptoms.[2] Searching for alternative recommendations in other medical schools such as Persian medicine (PM) may be the key to solving this medical issue. PM, is one of the most important branches of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM), rooted in more than 7000 years ago studied by outstanding scientists, especially those who lived in the golden age of Islam (9th–13th century AD) such as “Aviccena.[3] PM has a holistic viewpoint about health, and its protective roles are before curative ones.[4] The fundamental paradigm of PM is based on “humoral theory,” named as “Khelt” (Humor), with four basic humors, which are known as “Balgham” or “Phlegm,” “Safra” or “Yellow-bile,Soda” or “Black-Bile,” and “Dam” or “Sanguine.” As a PM basic law, the balance of these four humors leads to health and imbalance of each one, in quality, quantity or both causes various types of disease, which classified as a category named “Su-e-Mizaj” (Distemperament).[5] Tinnitus history is as old as PM antiquity. In PM, Tinnitus is known as “Tanin” or “Davi” and divided into two categories: real sounds (objective tinnitus) and unreal ones (subjective tinnitus), the same as the division in Modern medicine.[5] In the context of PM, to maintain health and prevent disease, PM scholars have recommended nonmedical essential Principles of Health which are six and named as “Sett-e-Zaroorieh.”[5] According to this, the most important principles in tinnitus are hearing pleasant music or sounds and avoid loud ones or speaking out loud, having moderate physical activity, having fun, avoiding in excessive sexual activity, avoiding long-term starvation, having complete and proper defecation daily and avoid constipation, avoiding prolonged exposure to sun, heat or showering and Restriction of smoking or consumption of the alcoholic beverage.[5]

As [Table 1] depicts, the pathophysiologies, descriptions, and recommendations in PM are signs of the antiquity in diagnostic and therapeutic methods of confronting tinnitus and the prominence of PM as a CAM.
Table 1: The pathophysiology of tinnitus and common suggestions in Persian medicine

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Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

Authors' contribution

Ali Aminian designed study, drafted the initial manuscript. Ehsan Zaboli revised and approved the final manuscript. Seyde SedigheYousefi supervised the study, revised and approved the final manuscript.

Financial support and sponsorship



The authors would like to thank Dr. Assie Jokar for her kindly assistance.

  References Top

Baguley D, Mc Ferran D, Hall D. Tinnitus. The Lancet 2013;382:1600-7.  Back to cited text no. 1
Kellerman RD, Bope ET. Conn's Current Therapy 2018 E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences:Elsevier;2017.  Back to cited text no. 2
Rezaeizadeh H, Alizadeh M, Naseri M, Shams Ardakani MR. The traditional Iranian medicine point of view on health and disease. Iranian J Publ Health 2009;38(Suppl. 1):pp. 169-72.  Back to cited text no. 3
Zargaran A, Azizi A, Kordafshari G, Borhani-Haghighi A. Rhazes contribution to the role of nutrition in preventive medicine and public health. Iran J Public Health 2014;43:1461-2.  Back to cited text no. 4
Avicenna. The Canon of Medicine (Al-Qanon-fi-Al-Tibb), (In Arabic), Beirut, Lebanon: Dar Ihyaa al-Turaath al-Arabi; 2005.  Back to cited text no. 5


  [Table 1]


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